By Joseph Reis – Owner of X tech news – fbx.ee.com
Robots are machines designed to perform a task automatically with speed, precision and accuracy. Robots are of many types as robots have application in different fields of life. We will discuss the top world robots and basics of robots in this post.
A Robot is a machine especially one programmable by a computer. It is capable of performing out a complex series of actions automatically. As man has developed its intellectual approach in machines and computers, he has developed robots. They are of great importance. They produce more accurate and high quality work in a very short time. Robots rarely commit mistakes and are definitely more precise than human workers. They can produce greater quantities in a short time. They can work at a constant rate with no breaks or holidays. All the top world robots works on the same mechanism. Basics of robots must be understand to know the workings of robots.
Controllable machines have fascinated humankind since ancient times. Robots have the following basics.
Composition of a Robot:
A normal robot consists of following parts:
- Movable Physical Structure.
- A Sensor System.
- A CPU
- A Power Supply.
- End Effectors
- And a Computer (which is also called the brain that controls all of these elements).
Movable Physical structure:
It assists in performing tasks assigned to a robot. It may be the arms, legs or both. In order to be considered as a robot , a device must have a body that it can move in reaction to feedback from its sensors. Robot’s body is made up of metal, plastic or similar material. Actuators are installed inside these bodies there are very small motors. Actuators mimic the action of human muscle to move part of the robot body. A simple robot consists of an arm with a tool attached for a particular task. Moreover, advanced robots may move around on wheels or treads. Humanoid robot has arms and legs that mimic human movement. This part is one of the top basics of robots.
Robots receive feedback from sensors that mimic human senses such as video cameras or devices called light-dependent resistors (LDR) that functions like eyes or microphones that act as ears. Some robots may also have touch , taste and smell senses. The robot’s CPU interprets received signals from these sensors and perform its actions accordingly.
A robots control system uses feedback just as the human brain does. However, instead of neurons, a robot consists of a silicon chip called a Central Processing Unit, that is similar to the chip that runs your computer. A robot’s CPU responds to the data collected from sensors.
In order to function properly and in fact a robot must have power just like other devices. Most robots get their energy from electricity. Stationary Robotic Arms like the ones that go around are usually powered by batteries. Our robotic space probes (that go to other planets) and satellites are often designed to collect solar power.
In order to interact with the external environment and carry out assigned tasks and functions, robots are equipped with tools called End Effectors. These vary highly according to the tasks the robot has been designed to carry out. For example, a factory worker robot have interchangeable tools such as paint sprayers or welding torches. Mobile robots such as the probes sent to other planets (for example robots sent to Mars) or bomb disposal robots have the universal grippers that performs the function of the human hands. This part is one of the basics of robots.
A feedback system is a device used within a robotic system for measuring a specific input and output variable. Feedback systems are mainly of two types, positive feedback and negative feedback. A robot employs feedback systems to produce outputs based on the input signal received from a controller or a sensor. A feedback system operates in combination with pneumatic, hydraulic, and electric drive systems.
Positive Feedback Mechanism:
In this mechanism of positive feedback, the response is transmitted across the same direction of stimuli.
Negative Feedback Mechanism:
In the negative feedback mechanism , the response is transmitted in a direction that is opposite to that of the stimuli that a sensor sense.
Closed Loop System:
In such a type of feedback system, the output response is measured based on the feedback signal. This system i.e close loop system is operated by comparing the output response with the desired output, and adjusting the input signal accordingly.
Hence, this system comprises a sensor for monitoring output signals. After the comparison is made , the output signal is sent back to the input source to produce new output. This system provides us with a higher efficiency and accurate output. These robots which uses closed loop feedback systems are called Servo Robots. This system is one of the top basics of robots.
The twenty-first century will be considered as a century of innovations and technological advancement in history. It began with beginner robot kits to robot assisted therapy. This industry has a way more to go to achieve the goal of human-less workings.
There are three categories of robotics:
- Social Humanoid Robots
- Social Non-Humanoid Robots
- Industrial Robots
It is a humanoid robot created in 2000 by Honda Company. Since then it has been continuously developed and modified so that it has become one of the most advanced robots of the world. It is installed with the ability to recognize moving objects.
ASIMO has the ability to walk, run and even climb the stairs. It is the most capable social robot (physically) so far and it can also shake hands with humans. It is designated in such a way that it can recognize gestures and can wave back.
Pepper was introduced in 2014 and was showcased in SoftBank’s mobile stores in Japan. Now, it is available for business and schools. It can understand and speak English, French, German, Italian, Arabic and Dutch.
It is the first robot in human history that can even recognize human emotions. PEPPER is socially capable of having conversations with people. It can give them directions and can even dance with them. It is built in with 20 degrees movement for natural and expressive tone.
Walker was released in 2019. It is a very agile , intelligent and bipedal humanoid robot. Walker can walk over obstacles and rough surfaces without falling and jiggling and can also play piano. It has arms which can hold and grasp things it can also recognize things by simply touching them.
This robot is not released so far , but it is capable of making history. It uses SLAM navigation and is also built so that it can avoid obstacles and can lead a dynamic path throughout. Whenever Walker is disturbed by external inertia or impact it can automatically adjust itself to center.
It is a therapeutic robot made like a baby seal. PARO is intended to be cute so that it can have a calming effect on patients in hospital as well as nursing in homes. It works in a similar way to animal-assisted therapy. This robot is especially of use with patients suffering from dementia. It is one of the world top robot.
It responds by moving its tail and also by opening and closing its eyes and also can cuddle with people. It is built with a 32-bit processor , three microphones , twelve tactile sensors which cover its fur and also have touch sensitive whiskers.
Valkyrie Robot was developed by the cooperation of NASA and the University of Edinburgh. It has the ability to assist the setup of habitat on Mars before human arrival. It is equipped with detachable arms, SONAR sensors, mounted cameras and a glowing Tony-Stark Esque circle which is equipped in it. Valkyrie is one of the top world robots.
It is designed to work in an environment which is too dangerous for astronauts which would allow building of safer habitats on Mars. Developers of Valkyrie Robot say that it is mobile and dexterous enough to enter disaster zones to provide research and rescue functions.
In this age of advancement and technology robots are playing a crucial role in human development. Whether it is industry, hospital, home or factory robots are playing their role in every walk of life. It is estimated that robots will replace humans in dangerous and risky works in near future and the future of robotics is very bright.
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